A Spray Mist Crave Controller Is Diet Defense... It has been all over the runways this season... models are spraying what seemed to be mouth spray to cleanse and refresh the breath was really homeopathic and helps you reduce hunger cravings!!! Everyone was spraying into their mouths this rapid-released formula that is used to reduce hunger cravings quickly. As a model before a show I can tell you that you really can't eat... not before a show, it can quickly change your body. So the no eat policy reigns strong.. but what to do if you are just craving??? Pills are sometimes to obvious and people can take note, so spray a little spray and no one is the wiser.... This product I chose because....Each spray delivers a highly concentrated dose of supplements to help control cravings and suppress your appetite. Unlike pills sprays use micro-size droplets directly into the mouth to start working quickly and yes it is fresh tasting....Crave Control starts to work in minutes without making you jittery or nervous. It's safe, effective, convenient, and easy to use... really easy to use. You can just stick it in your bag or jacket pocket and when you start to Crave and need Control you just spray it!! As always .....I will always tell everyone.....The healthy way to lose weight is to exercise, choose healthy foods, control food portions and drink 6−8 glasses of water a day. Limit the number of calories you eat every day and/or increase your daily physical activity.... added supplements are a benefit to these lifestyles. Crave Controller is your Diet Defense is not habit-forming, and has no side effects. You should always consult your doctor before you take any dietary supplement if you are being treated for a medical condition. read more... click here.
Looking for Thinspiration,.? Surf the gallery below it is internet crack!
Caffeine Supplements Today’s urban warriors are much the same. Ginseng, caffeine and Eastern medicine are still being utilized. Now as it was then, you are no where without the basics namely sleep, smart eating and exercise. First aim for at the minimum 6hours of sleep a night, for some a brief nap may lead to greater alertness and productivity. Pack in energy-promoting foods. The definition of energy is calories so make them count. Veggies provide fiber, vitamins and nutrients. Nutrition bars are a great source as well ... Caffeine is America’s most popular drug some 85% of Americans drink coffee or some type of caffeinated product. Americans usually are not the healthiest of the planets people there are better choices to make. South Central America they use a product called Yerba Mate and Guarana. West Africa the caffeine choice is kola nut and leaf. Caffeine works by stimulating the nervous system to speed up the heart rate, raise blood pressure and rev up the metabolism (helping the body lose weight.) It also heightens alertness and concentration...
The facts about "Carb" depleting You cannot completely delete "carbs" from your life. You need them to keep energy and focused. Their are many diets and products on the market today that can confuse anyone. Even someone who actually knows!
Buy yourself all the tools you need to attain your goals. With any lifestyle it takes investment. The good thing about this change in lifestyle is that you save money on food and spend your money on a lifetime of self satisfaction. Pick out a great measuring tape maybe an electric one and body fat counter. Always have an accurate Scale buy a diet book that has foods in it that you like. I I sell a lot of my favorite thinspo products (click here) few sites are dedicated to the aspects of calorie restricting lifestyles now I have a section for Cellulite, Fasting Products and my own line of Hydroxy ..... ya know only the best quick weight loss products and stuff! Check out my sample pack of products that all work together.... click here..
HYDROX PRODUCTS AND WHY THEY WORK: These super diet pills make weight come off fast. They create a thermogenasis effect in the body causing it to burn fat faster by using the bodies heat. This also causes the body to remove excess water from the body. Most of these products I have tried and lost weight but not as much as I had heard I could... so I investigated the situation and found the right mixture of all of the extracts and have started my own product line. To find out more please click here.
BODY CLEANSES Body cleansers work because they clean the body of the toxins it is holding. If the body is holding to many toxins it does not lose weight rapidly or work efficiently. I am sure you have heard about all the new teas and cleansers. They do work. You need to find one that works for your needs.
Become a Prothinspo Member... get the products and the support with emails and visualization techniques... click here.. MORE TIPS TO HOW THIN PEOPLE STAY THIN, CLICK HERE. Answers to your diet supplement questions. Okay, if you are dieting and find yourself binging or purging .. try the Prothinspo hoodia pop sample and see if it works for you. If you are dieting and every once in awhile you find yourself craving something use Prothinspo crave control to prevent those moments. If you wake up with coffee and feel full until mid afernoon and then go crazy.. try Prothinspo super slim shots. The #1 weight loss product in the world is Prothinspo Hydroxy it is the strongest weight loss supplement. If you are someone who eats right and works out but doesn't seem to move the scale use Prothinspo BS or BSP. If you have cellulite and belly fat that will just not go away from diet and exercise than the Prothinspo Chadebugre is best for you. The great thing about the products is that they can be alternated and used together. Always start by doing a colon cleanse first for maximum weight loss. click here. If you have questions please contact me for further help... Click here.
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People ask me everyday what was the strongest product that I have taken to lose weight the fastest. I took Prothinspo's Hydroxylim/ Diet Slim...I chose this product because of two studies.... The first studied showed a more rapid and effective weight loss than other diet products.This study set out to determine the efficacy of a calcium/potassium salt of 60% HCA extract from Garcinia cambogia alone and in combination with niacin- bound chromium and a standardized Gymnema Sylvestre Extract on weight-loss parameters in human volunteers. I know blah blah, but In a double-blind fashion, 60 moderately obese individuals were randomly assigned to three groups. Group 1 received just calcium/potassium salt of 60% HCA extract from Garcinia cambogia. Group 2 received the Garcinia cambogia extract, chromium polynicotinate, and Gymnema sylvestre extract. Group 3 received a placebo. All subjects received a 2000 kcal/day diet, participated in supervised walking five times per week, and took their assigned test supplements 3 times daily, 30 to 60 minutes before meals. Test measurements were then performed throughout the study, evaluating changes in bodyweight, body mass index (BMI), appetite, blood lipids, and markers of fat oxidation. After 8 weeks, Group 1 lost an average of 10 pounds, Group 2 lost 12.54 pounds, and the placebo group lost 3.53 pounds. At 8 weeks, both Group 1 and 2 were found to have lost significantly more weight than the placebo group. A reduction in appetite was also demonstrated in both Group 1 and 2. In addition, both Group 1 and 2 showed a significant increase in indicators of fat breakdown. It was concluded that supplementation with the combination of (-)– hydroxycitric acid (HCA-SX), niacin-bound chromium, and Gymnema Sylvestre Extract can help people with weight management. Very Cool Huh? So there is more... The next study was an 8 week study....In this 8-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled human trial, 30 moderately obese subjects were divided into three groups. Group 1 received just the calcium/potassium salt of 60% HCA extract from Garcinia cambogia. Group 2 received Garcinia cambogia extract, chromium polynicotinate, and Gymnema sylvestre extract. Group 3 received a placebo. All subjects were placed on a 2000 kcal/day diet; ingested the assigned test supplements 3 times daily, 30 to 60 minutes prior to meals; and participated in supervised walking five times per week. At the end of 8 weeks, Group 1 lost, on average, 12.1 pounds. Group 2 lost, on average, 14.99 pounds. Group 3 lost, on average, 3.06 pounds. At the end of the study period, weight-loss values in both Group 1 and Group 2 were significantly greater than in the placebo group. Moreover, the placebo group showed a slight increase in food consumption, while the HCA groups both showed a significant reduction in appetite compared to placebo. Based on the results from this study, it was concluded that the unique HCA extract used in this trial, either alone or in combination with Gymnema Sylvestre Extract and niacin-bound chromium, is effective in helping control appetite, increase fat oxidation, and promote weight loss. Aftter reading both of the studies and actually using this product I am proud to sell it on my site...
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Is Pro Ana your religion? Well, it seems that if it is your religion people should not judge you based on it. Fellow Prothinspoer's I know how you feel when people judge you. I just wanted to say, belief what you want to belief and follow your dreams.. On this planet, you can be whatever religion you want to be! I surfed the web and found some more info I thought you would like to read. Pro-Ana prays to anorexia.
Reality: There is reference to a religion of sorts that exsists on pro-ana websites, with several referrals of the name "Ana" mentioned. But people, mainly the media and anti's get confused and spread the misinformation that Ana refers to anorexia. The name Ana in the religious conotation actually is the full name Anamadim, and not some goddess named anorexia. The orgin of Anamadim was the creation of a site by the name of Underground Grotto, where there is even a summoning spell to invoke Anamadim. However there is an extremely slim (no pun intended) minority of those on pro-ana sites that partake in this religious style activity. This also has nothing to do with the letters, creeds, commandments, ect. either (see below for that information). It has nothing to do with the huge majority of pro-ana.
The entire pro-ana religion.
Reality: The pro-ana religion seen on many pro-ana sites was never created by any pro-ana site at all. All the creeds, letters, comandments are all made by professional psychologists in an attempt to make the mindset of the anorexic views be seen through their eyes. This was seen as a powerful message, and to those who are anorexic and wanting to go further into it, seen these messages as motivation instead of the reverse that it was intended to be. It's funny how those that hate pro-ana unwittingly gave it a religion isn't it? Not too many want that be known, and no wonder. Big opps eh? Just so you know, that is their writings if you ever see and/or use it.
Reality: If you ever been on a pro-ana forum before, you will notice that alot of the long term members are of a normal to ever so slightly below normal weight range. There is very few long termers that are in the medical anorexic weight range. So true they are thin, but in reality terms, they are in fact normal. In fact many of the extreme thin don't frequent pro-ed forums at all, they are on support forums instead. Of those that get to an extreme level who post pics and weights, are replied back with messages of concern and pleas for them to take care of themselves and to not loose any more weight. Now you have to actually be ON the forums to know this, but those who cry out the evils do not do very good research into what they are talking about. You could say that pro-ana is alot more pro-support leaning than it lets on too.
Myth: Pro-Ana is teaching others to become anorexic
Reality: You cannot "become" anorexic, it is not something you choose like a diet, anorexia chooses you and in the lottery of anorexia winning is loosing more than you know. It's outside factors in your own enviornment that make one eating disordered, not text and pictures on a website. To those that think you can become "ana" ... it won't happen. You may skip a few meals, fast for a few days but that does not make you anorexic at all. Much like a drag queen, you can look act talk walk and sing every bit like Cher ... but you are not Cher. It's simple as that.
Myth: Pro-Ana encourages you to stay anorexic
Reality: This is the touchy one. We don't encourage you to stay anorexic, but this is the biggest way in which we differ from the professional and pro-recovery sites. Instead of treating a disorder itself, pro-ana treats the person. We get to know the individual, what makes them laugh, smile, cry and scared to see what their world is like through their eyes. See, like I said before, eating disorders are a deep rooted problem and there is no point trying to get rid of something that will just come back again instantly. To get rid of this, one must get to the main root and work from there. Once the root is gone, the consequense of eating disorders are that much easier to recover from ... and the process will be a lasting one. This is why the most important part of any ed forum is the journal area.
Ana Creed I believe in Control, the only force mighty enough to bring order to the chaos that is my world. I believe that I am the most vile, worthless and useless person ever to have existed on this planet, and that I am totally unworthy of anyone's time and attention. I believe that other people who tell me differently must be idiots. If they could see how I really am, then they would hate me almost as much as I do. I believe in oughts, musts and shoulds as unbreakable laws to determine my daily behavior. I believe in perfection and strive to attain it. I believe in salvation through trying just a bit harder than I did yesterday. I believe in calorie counters as the inspired word of god, and memorize them accordingly. I believe in bathroom scales as an indicator of my daily successes and failures I believe in hell, because I sometimes think that I'm living in it. I believe in a wholly black and white world, the losing of weight, recrimination for sins, the abnegation of the body and a life ever fasting.
Ana Psalm Strict is my diet. I must not want. It maketh me to lie down at night hungry. It leadeth me past the confectioners. It trieth my willpower. It leadeth me in the paths of alteration for my figure's sake. Yea, though I walk through the aisles of the pastry department, I will buy no sweet rolls for they are fattening. The cakes and the pies, they tempt me. Before me is a table set with green beans and lettuce. I filleth my stomach with liquids, My day's quota runneth over. Surely calorie and weight charts will follow me all the days of my life, And I will dwell in the fear of the scales forever.
Ana Commandments 1. If you aren't thin you aren't attractive. 2. Being thin is more important than being healthy. 3. You must buy clothes, style your hair, take laxatives, starve yourself, do anything to make yourself look thinner. 4. Thou shall not eat without feeling guilty. 5. Thou shall not eat fattening food without punishing oneself afterwards. 6. Thou shall count calories and restrict intake accordingly. 7. What the scale says is the most important thing. 8. Losing weight is good/gaining weight is bad. 9. You can never be too thin. 10. Being thin and not eating are signs of true will power and success.
Letter From Ana:
Allow me to introduce myself. My name, or as I am called by so called "doctors", is Anorexia. Anorexia Nervosa is my full name, but you may call me Ana. Hopefully we can become great partners. In the coming time, I will invest a lot of time in you, and I expect the same from you. In the past you have heard all of your teachers and parents talk about you. You are "so mature", "intelligent", "14 going on 45", and you possess "so much potential". Where has that gotten you, may I ask? Absolutely no where! You are not perfect, you do not try hard enough, further more you waste your time on thinking and talking with friends and drawing! Such acts of indulgence shall not be allowed in the future.
Your friends do not understand you. They are not truthful. In the past, when the insecurity has quietly gnawed away at your mind, and you asked them, "Do I look....fat?" and they answered "Oh no, of course not" you knew they were lying! Only I tell the truth. Your parents, let's not even go there! You know that they love you, and care for you, but part of that is just that they are your parents and are obligated to do so. I shall tell you a secret now: deep down inside themselves, they are disappointed with you. Their daughter, the one with so much potential, has turned into a fat, lazy, and undeserving girl.
But I am about to change all that. I will expect you to drop your calorie intake and up your exercise. I will push you to the limit. You must take it because you cannot defy me! I am beginning to imbed myself into you. Pretty soon, I am with you always. I am there when you wake up in the morning and run to the scale. The numbers become both friend and enemy, and the frenzied thoughts pray for them to be lower than yesterday, last night, etc. You look into the mirror with dismay. You prod and poke at the fat that is there, and smile when you come across bone. I am there when you figure out the plan for the day: 400 calories, 2 hours exercise. I am the one figuring this out, because by now my thoughts and your thoughts are blurred together as one. I follow you throughout the day. In school, when your mind wanders I give you something to think about. Recount the calories for the day. It's too much. I fill your mind with thoughts of food, weight, calories, and things that are safe to think about. Because now, I am already inside of you. I am in your head, your heart, and your soul. The hunger pains you pretend not to feel is me, inside of you.
Pretty soon I am telling you not only what to do with food, but what to do ALL of the time. Smile and nod. Present yourself well. Suck in that fat stomach, dammit! God, you are such a fat cow!!!! When mealtimes come around I tell you what to do. I make a plate of lettuce seem like a feast fit for a king. Push the food around. Make it look like you've eaten something. No piece of anything...if you eat, all the control will be broken...do you WANT that?? To revert back to the fat COW you once were?? I force you to stare at magazine models. Those perfect skinned, white teethed, waifish models of perfection staring out at you from those glossy pages. I make you realize that you could never be them. You will always be fat and never will you be as beautiful as they are. When you look in the mirror, I will distort the image. I will show you obesity and hideousness. I will show you a sumo wrestler where in reality there is a starving child. But you must not know this, because if you knew the truth, you might start to eat again and our relationship would come crashing down.
Sometimes you will rebel. Hopefully not often though. You will recognize the small rebellious fiber left in your body and will venture down to the dark kitchen. The cupboard door will slowly open, creaking softly. Your eyes will move over the food that I have kept at a safe distance from you. You will find your hands reaching out, lethargically, like a nightmare, through the darkness to the box of crackers. You shove them in, mechanically, not really tasting but simply relishing in the fact that you are going against me. You reach for another box, then another, then another. Your stomach will become bloated and grotesque, but you will not stop yet. And all the time I am screaming at you to stop, you fat cow, you really have no self control, you are going to get fat.
When it is over you will cling to me again, ask me for advice because you really do not want to get fat. You broke a cardinal rule and ate, and now you want me back. I'll force you into the bathroom, onto your knees, staring into the void of the toilet bowl. Your fingers will be inserted into your throat, and, not without a great deal of pain, your food binge will come up. Over and over this is to be repeated, until you spit up blood and water and you know it is all gone. When you stand up, you will feel dizzy. Don't pass out. Stand up right now. You fat cow you deserve to be in pain! Maybe the choice of getting rid of the guilt is different. Maybe I chose to make you take laxatives, where you sit on the toilet until the wee hours of the morning, feeling your insides cringe. Or perhaps I just make you hurt yourself, bang your head into the wall until you receive a throbbing headache. Cutting is also effective. I want you to see your blood, to see it fall down your arm, and in that split second you will realize you deserve whatever pain I give you. You are depressed, obsessed, in pain, hurting, reaching out but no one will listen? Who cares!! You are deserving; you brought this upon yourself.
Oh, is this harsh? Do you not want this to happen to you? Am I unfair? I do do things that will help you. I make it possible for you to stop thinking of emotions that cause you stress. Thoughts of anger, sadness, desperation, and loneliness can cease because I take them away and fill your head with the methodic calorie counting. I take away your struggle to fit in with kids your age, the struggle of trying to please everyone as well. Because now, I am your only friend, and I am the only one you need to please. I have a weak spot. But we must not tell anyone. If you decide to fight back, to reach out to someone and tell them about how I make you live, all hell will break lose. No one must find out, no one can crack this shell that I have covered you with. I have created you, this thin, perfect, achieving child. You are mine and mine alone. Without me, you are nothing. So do not fight back. When others comment, ignore them. Take it into stride, forget about them, forget about everyone that tries to take me away. I am your greatest asset, and I intend to keep it that way.
I offer you my soul, my heart and my bodily functions. I give you all my earthly possessions.
I seek your wisdom, your faith and your feather weight. I pledge to obtain the ability to float, to lower my weight to the single digits, I pledge to stare into space, to fear food, and to see obese images in the mirror. I will worship you and pledge to be a faithful servant until death does us part.
If I cheat on you and procreate with Ronald McDonald, Dave Thomas, the colonel or that cute little dog. I will kneel over my toilet and thrust my fingers deep in my throat and pray for your forgiveness.
Please Ana, don't give up on me. I'm so weak, I know, but only you with your strength inside me will I become a woman worthy of love and respect. I'm begging for you not to give up, I'm pleading with my shallow breathes and my pale skin. I bleed for you, suffer leg pains, headaches and fainting spells. My love for you makes me dizzy and confused I don't know whether I'm coming or going. Men run when they see the love I have for you and never return. But they aren't important to me all that's important is that you love me.
If you stay with me, I will worship you daily, I will run miles a day, come rain, snow, bitter cold or searing heat I will run from the pain and in fright. I will do 1,000 sit ups a day and lie to my family about what I eat and how I feel. I will stop weeping when I feel your warm arms embrace my shivering body. I will numb the hunger pains with razor blades and your strength.
Today, I renew our friendship and resolve to be faithful to you year long, life long. I begin each year with a 3 day fast in honor of you. If you give me the strength to fade away I will love you and worship you forever.
When I'm finally faded to nothing, when you've given me the gift of ending this torturous life. I will float on to the next world and be thin and beautiful payment for my undying love for you in this world.
I ask only one more thing you, please Ana, remove me from this hell, from this world ASAP. Please take away this hatred for my pain and allow me to be free and light.
MiAna: Having both anorexia and bulimia (this term is what I came up with for my first website, and since has been used on the net a lot ... I have never seen the term used before until my first site went on the net.)
Pro-ana: This term infers being pro-active in the ED community, usually online. It does not mean promote ED's in any way, shape or form.
Thinspiration: Collection of thin looking peoples pictures, used to inspire those with ana/mia.
Anorectic: One who has anorexia.
Ana Buddy: An online friendship between pro-ana individuals. Ana buddies guide one another toward recovery or are penpals, sometimes becoming real life friends.
Fasting Buddy: An online friend (or friends) who compete in weight loss competitions and attempt to keep one another motivated to lose more weight.
Wannarexic: Someone who wants to develop an eating disorder, usually under some confusion about the consequences. Wannarexics are USUALLY unwanted at most websites aimed at sufferers, including pro-ana websites.
Wannarexia: The act of wanting to develop an eating disorder. Wannarexia is USUALLY discouraged at most websites aimed at sufferers, including pro-ana websites.
CW: Current weight.
HW: Highest weight.
LW: Lowest weight.
GW: Goal Weight.
STGW: Short term goal weight.
LTGW: Long term goal weight.
FGW: Final goal weight.
IP: In patient.
BMI: Body Mass Index.
What is anorexia nervosa?
Anorexia nervosa is a serious, often chronic, and life-threatening eating disorder defined by a refusal to maintain minimal body weight within 15 percent of an individual's normal weight. Other essential features of this disorder include an intense fear of gaining weight, a distorted body image, and amenorrhea (absence of at least three consecutive menstrual cycles when they are otherwise expected to occur). In addition to the classic pattern of restrictive eating, some people will also engage in recurrent binge eating and purging episodes. Starvation, weight loss, and related medical complications are quite serious and can result in death. People who have an ongoing preoccupation with food and weight even when they are thin would benefit from exploring their thoughts and relationships with a therapist. The term anorexia literally means loss of appetite, but this is a misnomer. In fact, people with anorexia nervosa ignore hunger and thus control their desire to eat. This desire is frequently sublimated through cooking for others or hiding food that they will not eat in their personal space. Obsessive exercise may accompany the starving behavior and cause others to assume the person must be healthy.
Who develops anorexia nervosa?
Like all eating disorders, anorexia nervosa tends to occur in pre- or post-puberty, but can develop at any major life change. Anorexia nervosa predominately affects adolescent girls and young adult women, although it also occurs in men and older women. One reason younger women are particularly vulnerable to eating disorders is their tendency to go on strict diets to achieve an "ideal" figure. This obsessive dieting behavior reflects today's societal pressure to be thin, which is seen in advertising and the media. Others especially at risk for eating disorders include athletes, actors, dancers, models, and TV personalities for whom thinness has become a professional requirement. For the person with anorexia nervosa, the satisfaction of control achieved over weight and food becomes very important if the rest of their life is chaotic and emotionally painful.
How many people suffer from anorexia nervosa?
Conservative estimates suggest that one-half to one percent of females in the U.S. develop anorexia nervosa. Because more than 90 percent of all those who are affected are adolescent and young women, the disorder has been been characterized as primarily a woman's illness. It should be noted, however, that males and children as young as seven years old have been diagnosed; and women 50, 60, 70, and even 80 years of age have fit the diagnosis.
How is the weight lost?
People with anorexia nervosa usually lose weight by reducing their total food intake and exercising excessively. Many persons with this disorder restrict their intake to fewer than 1,000 calories per day. Most avoid fattening, high-calorie foods and eliminate meats. The diet of persons with anorexia nervosa may consist almost completely of low-calorie vegetables like lettuce and carrots, or popcorn.
What are the common signs of anorexia nervosa?
The hallmark of anorexia nervosa is a preoccupation with food and a refusal to maintain minimally normal body weight. One of the most frightening aspects of the disorder is that people with anorexia nervosa continue to think they look fat even when they are bone-thin. Their nails and hair become brittle, and their skin may become dry and yellow. Depression is common in patients suffering from this disorder. People with anorexia nervosa often complain of feeling cold (hypothermia) because their body temperature drops. They may develop lanugo (a term used to describe the fine hair on a new born) on their body.
Persons with anorexia nervosa develop strange eating habits such as cutting their food into tiny pieces, refusing to eat in front of others, or fixing elaborate meals for others that they themselves don't eat. Food and weight become obsessions as people with this disorder constantly think about their next encounter with food. Generally, if a person fears he or she has anorexia nervosa, a doctor knowledgeable about eating disorders should make a diagnosis and rule out other physical disorders. Other psychiatric disorders can occur together with anorexia nervosa, such as depression and obsessive-compulsive disorder.
What are the causes of anorexia nervosa?
Knowledge about the causes of anorexia nervosa is inconclusive, and the causes may be varied. In an attempt to understand and uncover the origins of eating disorders, scientists have studied the personalities, genetics, environments, and biochemistry of people with these illnesses. Certain personality traits common in persons with anorexia nervosa are low self-esteem, social isolation (which usually occurs after the behavior associated with anorexia nervosa begins), and perfectionism. These people tend to be good students and excellent athletes. It does seem clear (although this may not be recognized by the patient), that focusing on weight loss and food allows the person to ignore problems that are too painful or seem irresolvable.
Eating disorders also tend to run in families, with female relatives most often affected. A girl has a 10 to 20 times higher risk of developing anorexia nervosa, for instance, if she has a sibling with the disease. This finding suggests that genetic factors may predispose some people to eating disorders. Behavioral and environmental influences may also play a role. Stressful events are likely to increase the risk of eating disorders as well. In studies of the biochemical functions of people with eating disorders, scientists have found that the neurotransmitters serotonin and nor epinephrine are decreased in those with anorexia, which links them with patients suffering from depression. People with anorexia nervosa also tend to have higher than normal levels of cortisol (a brain hormone released in response to stress) and vasopressin (a brain chemical found to be abnormal in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder).
Are there medical complications?
The starvation experienced by persons with anorexia nervosa can cause damage to vital organs such as the heart and brain. Pulse rate and blood pressure drop, and people suffering from this illness may experience irregular heart rhythms or heart failure. Nutritional deprivation causes calcium loss from bones, which can become brittle and prone to breakage. In the worst-case scenario, people with anorexia can starve themselves to death. Anorexia nervosa is among the psychiatric conditions having the highest mortality rates, killing up to six percent of its victims.
Is treatment available?
Luckily, most of the complications experienced by persons with anorexia nervosa are reversible when they restore weight. People with this disorder should be diagnosed and treated as soon as possible because eating disorders are most successfully treated when diagnosed early. Some patients can be treated as outpatients, but some may need hospitalization to stabilize their dangerously low weight. Weight gain of one to three pounds per week is considered safe and desirable. The most effective strategies for treating a patient have been weight restoration within ten percent of normal, and individual, family, and group therapies.
To help people with anorexia nervosa overcome their disorder, a variety of approaches are used. Some form of psychotherapy is needed to deal with underlying emotional issues. Cognitive-behavioral therapy is sometimes used to change abnormal thoughts and behaviors. Group therapy is often advised so people can share their experiences with others. Family therapy is important particularly if the individual is living at home and is a young adolescent. A physician or advanced-practice nurse is needed to prescribe medications that may be useful in treating the disorder. Finally, a nutritionist may be necessary to advise the patient about proper diet and eating regimens. Where support groups are available, they can be beneficial to both patients and families.
What about prevention?
New research findings are showing that some of the "traits" in individuals who develop anorexia nervosa are actual "risk factors" that might be treated early on. For example, low self esteem, body dissatisfaction, and dieting may be identified and interventions instituted before an eating disorder develops. Advocacy groups have also been effective in reducing dangerous media stories, such as teen magazine articles on "being thin" that may glamorize such risk factors as dieting.
What is bulimia nervosa?
Bulimia nervosa is a serious eating disorder marked by a destructive pattern of binge- eating and recurrent inappropriate behavior to control one's weight. It can occur together with other psychiatric disorders such as depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder, substance dependence, or self-injurious behavior. Binge eating is defined as the consumption of excessively large amounts of food within a short period of time. The food is often sweet, high in calories, and has a texture that makes it easy to eat fast. "Inappropriate compensatory behavior" to control one's weight may include purging behaviors (such as self-induced vomiting, abuse of laxatives, diuretics, or enemas) or non-purging behaviors (such as fasting or excessive exercise). For those who binge eat, sometimes any amount of food, even a salad or half an apple, is perceived as a binge and is vomited.
People with bulimia nervosa often feel a lack of control during their eating binges. Their food is usually eaten secretly and gobbled down rapidly with little chewing. A binge is usually ended by abdominal discomfort. When the binge is over, the person with bulimia feels guilty and purges to rid his or her body of the excess calories. To be diagnosed with bulimia, a person must have had, on average, a minimum of two binge-eating episodes a week for at least three months. The first problem with any eating disorder is constant concern with food and weight to the exclusion of almost all other personal concerns.
Who develops bulimia?
Bulimia nervosa typically begins in adolescence or early adulthood. Like anorexia nervosa, bulimia mainly affects females. Only ten percent to 15 percent of affected individuals are male. An estimated two percent to three percent of young women develop bulimia, compared with the one-half to one percent that is estimated to suffer from anorexia. Studies indicate that about 50 percent of those who begin an eating disorder with anorexia nervosa later become bulimic.
It is believed that more than five million individuals experience an eating disorder (bulimia nervosa or anorexia nervosa) in this country alone. It is ten times more common in women than men, with greatest prevalence occurring in adolescents and college-age young adults. This indicates a need for concern and preventive measures on college campuses across the country, especially for female students.
How do people with bulimia control their weight?
People with bulimia are overly concerned with body shape and weight. They make repeated attempts to control their weight by fasting and dieting, vomiting, using drugs to stimulate bowel movements and urination, and exercising excessively. Weight fluctuations are common because of alternating binges and fasts. Unlike people with anorexia, people with bulimia are usually within a normal weight range. However, many heavy people who lose weight begin vomiting to maintain the weight loss.
What are the common signs of bulimia?
Constant concern about food and weight is a primary sign of bulimia. Common indicators that suggest the self-induced vomiting that persons with bulimia experience are the erosion of dental enamel (due to the acid in the vomit) and scarring on the backs of the hands (due to repeatedly pushing fingers down the throat to induce vomiting).
A small percentage of people with bulimia show swelling of the glands near the cheeks called parotid glands. People with bulimia may also experience irregular menstrual periods and a decrease in sexual interest. A depressed mood is also commonly observed as are frequent complaints of sore throats and abdominal pain. Despite these telltale signs, bulimia nervosa is difficult to catch early. Binge eating and purging are often done in secret and can be easily concealed by a normal-weight person who is ashamed of his or her behavior, but compelled to continue it because he or she believes it controls weight. Characteristically, these individuals have many rules about food -- e.g. good foods, bad foods -- and can be entrenched in these rules and particular thinking patterns. This preoccupation and these behaviors allow the person to shift their focus from painful feelings and reduce tension and anxiety perpetuating the need for these behaviors.
Are there any serious medical complications?
Persons with bulimia -- even those of normal weight -- can severely damage their bodies by frequent binging and purging. Electrolyte imbalance and dehydration can occur and may cause cardiac complications and, occasionally, sudden death. In rare instances, binge eating can cause the stomach to rupture, and purging can result in heart failure due to the loss of vital minerals like potassium.
Do we know what causes bulimia?
The current obsession with thinness in our culture certainly has a large influence. There is some evidence that obesity in adolescence or familial tendency toward obesity predisposes an individual to the development of the disorder. Parents’ anxiety over a chubby child can perhaps also be a contributor. Some individuals with bulimia report feeling a "kind of high" when they vomit. People with bulimia are often compulsive and may also abuse alcohol and drugs. Eating disorders like anorexia and bulimia tend to run in families, and girls are most susceptible. Recently, scientists have found certain neurotransmitters (serotonin and norepinephrine) to be decreased in some persons with bulimia. Most likely, it is a combination of environmental and biological factors that contribute to the development and expression of this disorder. During the early 1970s, before the prevalence of bulimia was more widely recognized, almost all persons with an eating disorder believed they had invented the behaviors and that no one else had such a problem. As in anorexia nervosa, the behaviors associated with bulimia provide temporary relief from tension and allow ill persons to focus less on problems perceived as irresolvable and to instead focus on body weight and food.
Is treatment available for persons with bulimia?
Most people with bulimia can be treated through individual outpatient therapy because they aren't in danger of starving themselves as are persons with anorexia. However, if the bulimia is out of control, admission to an eating disorders treatment program may help the individual let go of their behaviors so they can concentrate on treatment.
Group therapy is especially effective for college-aged and young adult women because of the understanding of the group members. In group therapy they can talk with peers who have similar experiences. Additionally, support groups can be helpful as they can be attended for as long as necessary, have flexible schedules, and generally have no charge. Support groups, however, do not take the place of treatment. Sometimes a person with an eating disorder is unable to benefit from group therapy or support groups without the encouragement of a personal therapist.
Cognitive-behavioral therapy, either in a group setting or individual therapy session, has been shown to benefit many persons with bulimia. It focuses on self-monitoring of eating and purging behaviors as well as changing the distorted thinking patterns associated with the disorder. Cognitive-behavioral therapy is often combined with nutritional counseling and/or antidepressant medications such as fluoxetine (Prozac).
Treatment plans should be adjusted to meet the needs of the individual concerned, but usually a comprehensive treatment plan involving a variety of experts and approaches is best. It is important to take an approach that involves developing support for the person with an eating disorder from the family environment or within the patient’s community environment (support groups or other socially supportive environments).
What about prevention?
Prevention research is increasing as scientists study the known "risk factors" to these disorders. Given that bulimia and other eating disorders are multi-determined and affect young women, there is preliminary information on the role and extent such factors as self esteem, resilience, family interactions, peer pressure, the media and dieting might play in its development. Advocacy groups are also engaged in prevention through efforts such as removing damaging articles from teen magazines on "dieting" and the importance of "being thin."